Inflammation is a part of the body’s innate immune response to physical injury, harmful microorganisms, damaged cells, irritants, toxins or other adverse stimuli. It involves complex biological changes in the vascular tissues, with the traditional signs of inflammation being rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and function laesa (loss of function). Rubor and calor are caused by increased blood flow at core body temperature to the injured site, tumor is due to the retention of fluid and dolor is caused by the release of chemicals which stimulate the nervous system. Functio laesa might exist due to several reasons. While all the traditional signs might be observed at the inflamed site, none is necessarily always present.
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